Although taking the name of the town of Henley the constituency covers runs from near the edge of Bicester in the north to the edge of Reading in the south skirting Oxford to the west and the Buckinghamshire border to the east. It covers some 270 square miles, includes 133 settlements of various population sizes including which includes Berinsfield, Benson, Bletchingdon, Chalgrove, Chinnor, Goring, Henley-on-Thames, Islip, Kirtlington, Sonning Common, Thame, Watlington, Wheatley, and many other small villages and hamlets. It has around 77,000 voters.
The constituency comes within the area of Oxfordshire County Council and at district level some parts are covered by Cherwell District Council and others by South Oxfordshire District Council. It is a largely rural constituency with the two small towns of Henley-on-Thames and Thame, and over 100 other villages and hamlets. The River Thames defines a large part of the boundary of the constituency.
The Boundary Commission proposals make few changes to the constituency removing no wards and adding three - two from the Banbury constituency and one from the Oxford West and Abingdon constituency. These changes have yet to be agreed.